Dr Don Cameron
Following Hume, no conclusion about a value can be derived by reasoning about facts alone; at least one value premise is required. From this it can be shown that all the values that arise in society must ‘boot up’ from genetically programmed values. The mechanisms by which these have evolved during our long past as social animals are reviewed, together with the processes of the continuing social augmentation of values.
Our values may have been originally determined by selection of those leaving the most descendants, yet they do not do that in the modern world. To judge what is correct now, we have no criterion other than our existing values. This question may have no solution, but it is (or should be) the most important in philosophy today.